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MCI-Poster Session
Montag, 04.09.2023:
18:00 - 22:00

Chair der Sitzung: Fiona Draxler
Chair der Sitzung: Shadan Sadeghian
Chair der Sitzung: Kenan Bektas
Ort: Gebäude 1


Investigating Apparent Tactile Motion and Cutaneous Rabbit Illusion to Support Cyclists' Navigation

Dennis Wittchen, Gabriel Schreyer, Alexander Ramian, Georg Freitag

University of Applied Sciences Dresden, Deutschland

The objective of this work is to uncover the capabilities of tactile illusions applied on the head to assist cyclists in navigation tasks. Recent research using tactile illusions to support guidance has focused on augmenting the entire circumference of the head. A comparison of apparent tactile motion (ATM) and cutaneous rabbit illusion (CRI) in this context has not yet been performed. We developed a headband that renders such illusions exclusively on the forehead to indicate 360°-directional information. In a feasibility study with 17 participants, we evaluated the performance of eight directional cues rendered as ATM and CRI while riding a bike simulator. Our results show that participants recognize directional cues of both illusions equally (ATM: M=70.6%, SD=21.1; CRI: M=67.2%, SD=22.8), which gives more flexibility in the design of vibrotactile patterns. Even though the overall recognition rates might not meet the threshold needed for sufficient navigation in real scenarios yet, these findings suggest that tactile illusions can be beneficial in everyday activities such as navigation for cyclists.

CoShare: a Multi-Pointer Collaborative Screen Sharing Tool

Martina Emmert, Andreas Schmid, Raphael Wimmer, Niels Henze

Universität Regensburg, Deutschland

Existing tools for screen sharing and remote control only allow a single user to interact with a system while others are watching. Collaborative editors and whiteboards allow multiple users to work simultaneously, but only offer a limited set of tools. With CoShare, we combine both concepts into a screen sharing tool that gives remote viewers a mouse pointer and a text cursor so that they can seamlessly collaborate within the same desktop environment. We have developed a proof-of-concept implementation that leverages Linux' multi-pointer support so users can control applications in parallel. It also allows limited sharing of clipboard and dragging files from the remote viewer's desktop into the video-streamed desktop. In focus groups we gathered user requirements regarding privacy, control, and communication. A qualitative lab study identified further areas for improvement and demonstrated CoShare's utility.

Appealing but Potentially Biasing - Investigation of the Visual Representation of Segmentation Predictions by AI Recommender Systems for Medical Decision Making

Jonas Ammeling1, Carina Manger1, Elias Kwaka1, Sebastian Krügel1, Matthias Uhl1, Angelika Kießig2, Alexis Fritz2, Jonathan Ganz1, Andreas Riener1, Christof A. Bertram3, Katharina Breininger4, Marc Aubreville1

1Technische Hochschule Ingolstadt, Deutschland; 2Katholische Universität Eichstätt, Germany; 3University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Austria; 4Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany

Artificial intelligence (AI)-based recommender systems can help to improve efficiency and accuracy in medical decision making. Yet, it has been shown that a recommendation given by an algorithm can influence the human expert responsible for the decision. The strength and direction of this bias, induced by a computer-aided diagnosis workflow, can be influenced by the visual representation of the results. This study focuses on evaluating four frequently used visualization types (bounding box, segmentation mask, segmentation contour, and heatmap) for displaying segmentation results of medical data. A group of 24 medical experts specializing in pathology and radiology participated in the evaluation, assessing the subjective appeal of these visualizations. The study evaluated the pragmatic and hedonic quality of the visualizations based on a standardized questionnaire and specific criteria relevant to medical decision making. The findings indicate that the heatmap received the highest ratings for non-task-oriented aspects of the user experience. However, it exhibited significant inconsistencies among experts concerning task-oriented aspects and was perceived as the most biasing visualization type. On the other hand, the segmentation contour consistently received high ratings across various subscales. The results of the study contribute to better alignment between visualization techniques and user requirements for the development of future AI-based recommender systems.

Voice Messages Reimagined: Exploring the Design Space of Current Voice Messaging Interfaces

Philip Weber1, Lea Katharina Michel2, Lena Koschorreck2, Thomas Ludwig1

1EduTech for Digital Transformation, University of Hagen, Hagen, Germany; 2Information Systems, University of Siegen, Siegen, Germany

The acceptance and use of voice messaging for interpersonal communication has grown significantly in recent years. The aim of this paper is to empirically investigate this kind of voice messaging and to explore design spaces for richer voice-based interaction experiences. We therefore conducted a focus group to identify the current advantages and disadvantages of six instant messenger platforms. Based on the identified requirements we derived a click prototype, which was then evaluated. Our study identified several design spaces for improving voice messaging interfaces, such as improving the efficiency of information retrieval, increasing control over the recording process, optimizing design for privacy and intimacy, and improving usability, accessibility, and personalization. Our findings underscore the importance of prioritizing user-centered design in the development of voice messaging interfaces and provide guidance for future research and development in this area.

Using Commercial Children's Smart Pens for Prototyping Interactive Science Communication Media in the Digital Transformation of Production

Philipp Brauner, Tim Schmeckel, Luisa Vervier, Luca Liehner, Martina Ziefle

RWTH Aachen Universtiy, Deutschland

The Tiptoi smart pen has a huge fan following among children and their parents. Interacting with the pen makes it easy to see why: the pen has been designed to help children learn and explore complex information about a vast array of topics, from cell development to climate change. This work examined whether the Tiptoi pen could be similarly used to communicate science to the general public, taking a research project on the digital transformation of production as an example. Following an iterative design approach, we created an interactive book that allows self-directed engagement with the general research motivation, partners, and the objectives of the project. Building on a SWOT analysis, we conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with four subjects to evaluate the prototype. The evaluation was generally positive. Participants recognised the playful and appealing design, and the vivid and tangible knowledge transfer as strengths but were unhappy with the pen's toy-like appearance. They also identified potential functions such as real factory sounds and narrative techniques to enhanced storytelling as opportunities and mobile learning apps and virtual reality applications as threats. The article concludes with a discussion of alternative use-cases for smart pens and implementation guidelines.

An Immersive Learning Factory for AI & Data Literacy: An Exploratory Study in the Wild

Shi Liu, Thimo Schulz, Peyman Toreini, Alexander Maedche

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Deutschland

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has already made a strong impact on business and private life. Nonetheless, understanding how AI works and which role data specifically plays in this context still remains unclear for many people. We argue that especially students with non-technical backgrounds should build up AI & data literacy to understand the key concepts of AI & data and leverage its potential in their field of study and research. For this purpose, we present the concept of an immersive learning factory, where students can explore AI & data concepts with interactive and immersive technologies. In this paper, we demonstrate our overarching idea of the immersive learning factory, as well as the results of our exploratory evaluation with industrial engineering & management students from a data science lecture. Our main contribution includes the conceptual framework of the immersive learning factory, as well as design guidelines for creating immersive learning experiences concluded from the evaluation.

An Emotion-Adaptive VR Experience for Recreational Use in Eldercare

Adhityan Raja, Evangelos Niforatos, Christina Schneegass

Delft University of Technology, Niederlande

Virtual Reality (VR) technology provides the elderly, and people with dementia, the opportunity to reminisce by exploring places outside their (care) home, free from age-related (physical) restrictions. However, the elderly are particularly vulnerable to overstimulation. Irresponsible VR design can cause stress and anxiety, potentially even exacerbating cognitive decline, and diminishing well-being. We present an electromyography (EMG) driven stress- and emotion-adaptive VR environment for the elderly that provides an immersive but controlled experience targeted at preventing negative emotions. We report our results and insights from a pilot study with elderly participants (N=3). Our system detects and mitigates signs of stress and negative emotions while promoting pleasant recollections.

Increasing sustainable user behaviour in digital products through transparent sustainability information

Lydia Penkert, Carla Gröschel

Independent Researcher

Sustainable user behavior and purchasing preferences are crucial in combating the climate crisis and encourage businesses to develop eco-efficient and sustainable products. This study examines the impact of transparency in sustainability information for digital products on users' behavior, conducting an online study with 80 participants. Participants were asked to decide for a website from a search result list - in the experimental condition the result list additionally contained information on the energy type the website was hosted (fossil or renewable energy). The results reveal that the inclusion of sustainability information in search results significantly influences users, leading to an increased preference for search results hosted on renewable energy platforms.

Cyber-Physical & Human Systems (CPHS) -- A Review and Outlook

Denys J.C. Matthies, Marco Gabrecht, Horst Hellbrück

Technical University of Applied Sciences Lübeck

This paper explores the concept of Cyber-Physical & Human Systems (CPHS), which consist of cyber-physical computer systems and humans that interact on different levels, physically and digitally. CPHS focuses on two aspects: the cyber-physical system and the human system, and how they are linked by artificial intelligence (AI). This concept applies in various applications, such as medical systems, assistance systems, and environmental systems. Besides providing an a comprehensive overview of CPHS and its related concepts, the paper ultimately contributes a definition and closes with an outlook.

NOSEwrist: Natural Olfactory Substitution and Extension wrist

Denys Matthies, Ole Sellhorn, Marco Gabrecht, Jörg Schuljak, Horst Hellbrück

Technical University of Applied Sciences Lübeck, Deutschland

This paper presents a wearable augmentation device that aims to substitute and extend olfactory sensation. The device utilizes gas sensors mounted on the wrist, combined with a trained machine learning model, to discriminate liquids such as water, alcohol, fluid accelerant, and vinegar. The device aims to be useful in cases where the sense of taste and smell are compromised, such sometimes occuring during a COVID-19 infection. The paper also discusses the design space for this technology to be utilized in a variety of ways, beyond just substituting a broken sense, and how it aligns with the vision of early HCI pioneer Douglas Engelbart, and the concept of Assistive Augmentation. The paper concludes that this technology, in combination with artificial intelligence, has the potential to enrich our physical experience and bring us closer to the idea of a "Cyber-Human" in the future.

Current Challenges and Barriers in Sustainable Web Design: A Qualitative Study

Sivert Gullberg Hansen, Henrik Landgraff Granum, Magnus Moen, Ola Hulleberg, Carlos Vicient Monllaó, Yavuz Inal

Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway

Sustainable web design plays a crucial role in mitigating the environmental impact of websites and digital services. However, there is still a long way to go in implementing sustainable web design practices. To understand current challenges and barriers in sustainable web design, we conducted a qualitative study gathering data from 27 participants, including practitioners, prospective practitioners, and academia in Norway. Our analysis revealed that a lack of knowledge and understanding of sustainable web design is the most frequently reported challenge. Participants expressed a need for more information and specific guidelines on how to implement sustainable practices. Other challenges included a lack of prioritization among customers, a lack of motivation, comprehension difficulties, and a lack of syllabi in academia. The majority of participants ranked sustainability as their lowest priority, with accessibility taking the top spot due to current regulations in Norway. However, similar challenges were reported in implementing web accessibility, where participants expressed dissatisfaction with the guidelines.

Towards Authoring Tools For DIY Tutorials: From Tutorial User Strategies to Guidelines (Free Template Included!)

Marcel Lahaye, Vivian Isabel Reinartz, Sarah Sahabi, Jan Borchers

RWTH Aachen University, Deutschland

Tutorials are essential for knowledge exchange in the DIY community. However, they often have quality issues leading to misunderstandings, mistakes, and safety risks. This indicates a need for research into how to design interactive systems that reduce author workload, improve tutorial quality, and present tutorial content more dynamically adapted to users' needs. As a baseline for such research, we need to understand how tutorial users determine tutorial quality. To this end, we conducted a qualitative study with 13 makers seeking out tutorials to implement a chosen project. We observed them selecting tutorials and asked about their selection criteria and strategies in semi-structured retrospective interviews. We combined our findings with related work, derived tutorial authoring guidelines, and created an example template embodying these recommendations. Our contributions can benefit researchers and practitioners designing authoring tools for DIY tutorials, but also DIY tutorial authors and websites.

Foregrounding Values through Public Participation: Eliciting Values of Citizens in the Context of Mobility Data Donation

Peter Sörries1, Daniel Franzen1, Markus Sperl2, Claudia Müller-Birn1

1Freie Universität Berlin, Deutschland; 2Technologiestiftung Berlin, Deutschland

Citizen science projects are conducted with interested volunteers and have already shown promise for large-scale scientific research (e.g., crowdsourcing activities). However, citizen science projects tend to cultivate the sharing of large amounts of data. Towards this, our research aims to understand better citizens' potential privacy concerns in such participation formats. We, therefore, investigate how meaningful public participation can be facilitated to derive design requirements for data donation practices that reflect participants' values in the context of mobility in citizen science projects. Informed by participatory design and value sensitive design, we developed a two-step method to focus on participants' values in the context of mobility data donation, namely (1) a workshop approach for participatory value elicitation and (2) an analysis procedure to examine the empirical data collected systematically. Our findings from three workshops facilitated provide new directions for the improvement of data donation practices in the field of citizen science: First, citizens' self-governance should be strengthened by focusing on local infrastructures; second, citizens' reflection on data donation should be promoted by emphasizing social interaction; and third, citizens' data sovereignty should be enhanced by disentangling data practices. With our work, we hope to inform policies and laws incorporating the values of all stakeholders and guide practitioners towards reflected data collection practices to realize the potential of privacy-preserving utilization of urban mobility data.

To Classify is to Interpret: Building Taxonomies from Heterogeneous Data through Human-AI Collaboration

Sebastian Meier1, Katrin Glinka2

1Potsdam University of Applied Sciences, Interaction Design Lab, Germany; 2Freie Universität Berlin, Germany

Taxonomy building is a task that requires interpreting and classifying data within a given frame of reference, which comes to play in many areas of application that deal with knowledge and information organization. In this paper, we explore how taxonomy building can be supported with systems that integrate machine learning (ML). However, relying only on black-boxed ML-based systems to automate taxonomy building would sideline the users’ expertise. We propose an approach that allows the user to iteratively take into account multiple model’s outputs as part of their sensemaking process. We implemented our approach in two real-world use cases. The work is positioned in the context of HCI research that investigates the design of ML-based systems with an emphasis on enabling human-AI collaboration.

Knowing the Limits – Human-Centered Explanations of Functionality and Limits of AI

Lisa Graichen1, Matthias Graichen2

1TU Berlin, Deutschland; 2Independent Researcher

Building an appropriate mental model about the functional principles and limitations of technical systems or AI-based applications is crucial, particularly when these systems are applied in domains involving high risk to user safety, like driving. The presented paper describes an upcoming study on applying methods from Explainable AI to facilitate the building of mental models and investigate their effects on user trust. For the interaction with an AI-based system, we use an algorithm designed to support drivers at intersections by predicting turning maneuvers, thus being able to warn a driver of potential cyclists when turning right. Participants will be able to experience the system in a simulated driving environment. We will investigate the effect of receiving comprehensive training about the system’s functionality and limitations on mental models, trust, and acceptance.

Exploring Dynamic Vibrotactile Feedback for Layer-based Interaction on Elastic Displays

Mathias Müller, Alexander Ramian, Dennis Wittchen, Georg Freitag, Dietrich Kammer

Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft Dresden, Deutschland

Elastic Displays are shape-changing interfaces, typically made from elastic fabric. Surface deformation creates an additional dimension of interaction and enhances the haptic experience for the user compared to rigid touch interfaces. Other forms of shape-changing interfaces such as actuated displays introduce significant mechanical complexity with the benefit of providing active haptic feedback and self-deformation. We investigate ways to make Elastic Displays more ‘active’ while maintaining their simple setup. Our approach adds vibrotactile feedback to the elastic surface, which add explicit haptic feedback when pushing and pulling the surface. In this contribution, we describe the technical setup and introduce concepts for exploring this active haptic feedback. We realized a case study, in which a layered information space is explored. Finally, we report lessons learned from user feedback, showing that solely vibrotactile feedback may have distracting effects on the user, but in combination with visual feedback can improve the user experience.

Optimized Visualization of Building Fire Risks through Mobile Application

Norman Jung1, Mira von der Linde2, Meinald T. Thielsch2

1Technical University of Berlin, Germany; 2University of Münster, Germany

This research paper aims to develop an app-based visualization of fire probability that enhances fire safety measures in public and cultural buildings by leveraging the Internet of Things and Wireless Sensor Networks for early fire detection. Our study addresses the question of how a user-friendly app-based visualization of fire probability can contribute to more effective prevention and mitigation strategies in these buildings. We employed a two-study methodology to answer this research question. The first study (N=104) used the Kano model to identify the key features and attributes that laypersons and experts prioritize in a fire probability visualization app. The second study (N=507) involved creating and evaluating low-fidelity interface mock-ups based on the findings of the first study, with a focus on the effectiveness of presenting fire probability information to both laypersons and experts. Our key findings from the first study revealed that participants prioritize functionality and effectiveness over aesthetics when assessing app-based visualizations of fire probability. The second study demonstrated that clear and organized interfaces, such as a listing of rooms with a two or three-level risk rating, are more effective in presenting fire probability information and engaging users. The study also highlighted the benefits of employing visual cues and avoiding overly simplistic designs that may not effectively engage users. In summary, our research provides valuable insights that can inform the development of more effective fire probability systems and interfaces. By prioritizing functionality, user-friendliness, and engagement, improved fire probability systems and interfaces can contribute to more effective prevention and mitigation strategies in public and cultural buildings.

The Impact of Explanation Detail in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems: User Experience, Acceptance, and Age-related Effects

Julia Hermann, Niels Nierobisch, Robin Arndt, Ann-Kathrin Kubullek, Sebastian van Ledden, Aysegül Dogangün

Ruhr West University of Applied Science, Germany

User understanding and confidence are critical in the context of advanced intelligent driver assistance systems (ADAS) to ensure the desired response and prevent manual countersteering during automated maneuvers. However, the interventions of advanced ADAS can sometimes be unexpected and disruptive to drivers, especially when the reasons are unclear. In our study, we investigated the effects of differently presented explanations provided by a driver assistance system. We presented participants with three scenarios from the driver's perspective and created two videos for each scenario with explanations of varying detail. Participants were asked to answer two questionnaires following each video. The results show that more detailed explanations generally lead to a better user experience and higher confidence in the system's performance. We also discuss the possible influence of age and technology acceptance in our article.

Travel Experience in Public Transport: A Geospatial Analysis by Experience Mapping

Esther Bosch1, Ricarda Luther2, Klas Ihme1

1Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Deutschland; 2Universität Osnabrück, Deutschland

A change towards sustainability is crucial also in the transportation sector. However, humans' need for mobility is increasing. Therefore, a shift towards sustainable transportation is necessary. Besides changes in reliability and availability, transportation can be made more attractive by better understanding travelers' needs. This paper presents first results of a study with 23 participants that traveled by public transport. We continuously recorded travel satisfaction, stress, event, and cardiological data. We plotted the collected data averaged in 0.0008 degree squares over the traveled map to detect points of collective positive or negative travel experience in public transport. Preliminary results show that bothersome people are a major cause for negative experience at a busy changing point. This adds to existing research, as most previous studies have concentrated on time- and cost aspects of public transport. Our method is a powerful tool to analyze points at which a transportation system needs to change to take the traveler's needs into account.

ELSI Product Owner: Integration of ethical, legal and social aspects in agile development processes

Sebastian van Ledden, Aysegül Dogangün, Julia Hermann

Hochschule Ruhr West, Deutschland

In our paper, we present our thoughts on a concept for integrating ethical, legal and social aspects (ELSI) into agile project management according to SCRUM. Based on existing work in the field of agile methods and the consideration of ELSI requirements in the design of artifacts, the role of the ELSI Product Owner is presented. The ELSI Product Owner acts as a link between the Agile development teams and the ELSI requirements and helps to integrate these aspects into the overall development process. In this paper, we explain the steps to develop the concept and discuss possible applications. By introducing the ELSI Product Owner, agile teams can not only efficiently iteratively incrementally develop their products and services, but also ensure that ethical, legal, and social aspects are considered from the beginning. Our concept offers a solution to meet the growing demands for ELSI as a fixed building block in the agile framework.

Assistance in Virtual Reality Exergames: Preference for Species of Agents in Relation to Personality of Users

Nora Lehmann, Lucie Kruse, Frank Steinicke

Universität Hamburg, Deutschland

Virtual agents (VAs) can be used in a variety of scenarios, e.g. as assistants or in exergame tutorials. One of the advantages of VAs is that they can be customized to the user's needs. Still, little research is done on preferences for the appearance of agents used with younger and older adults. This work explores the effect of the species (abstract, animal, and human) of the agent on several dependent variables: user experience, anthropomorphism, animacy, likeability, and perceived intelligence. An experimental study with a within-subject design was conducted. Furthermore, the effect of the user's personality on the perception was investigated. Main findings were that people that had a high score in the openness to new experiences trait rated embodied agents significantly higher in likeability and animacy than people with a low score. This work highlights the importance of tailoring the appearance of agents to the users.

Applying a Feature-Oriented Software Development Approach to Model Interaction Diversity

David Gollasch, Gerhard Weber

Technische Universität Dresden, Deutschland

This research introduces a novel modelling approach based on methods from feature-oriented software development, aimed at enhancing accessibility and diversity in interactive systems. The method integrates user requirements, particularly accessibility and sensitivity to diversity, into software family development. Utilizing a user model subtree, it allows for customization based on users' needs, constraints, and preferences. A prototypical demonstration through a voice user interface of an assistance robot. Despite an overall satisfying success rate of 96%, results suggest the quality of configuration slightly decreases with an increasing number of user constraints. This innovative approach offers significant potential, especially given the growing need for personalized human-computer interaction in our ageing society. However, it also prompts further research questions, such as its adaptability to non-software family systems and quality of configuration via smart AI models.

Insights on Older Adults’ Willingness, Motives and Experiences regarding Participation in HCI research

Karoline Marzi, Holger Klapperich, Alina Huldtgren

Hochschule Düsseldorf, Deutschland

User-centered and Participatory Design approaches have become widespread within HCI, also when designing digital media for older adults. These methodologies are seen as crucial to adapt technology design to older people’s needs and increase their acceptance of digital technology. Nevertheless, it is often difficult to reach a diverse group of older people, for instance, people with limited technology skills, limited mobility, or cognitive issues. In addition, gerontologists criticized lately how older people’s participation unfolds in technology design projects, e.g. that people are pushed into the role of users. Little is known about the motivations and needs of older adults regarding their participation in HCI research. To close this gap, we conducted an online survey (N=46) and semi-structured interviews (N=8) focusing on motivations, willingness and experiences regarding participation. Results show that people are generally willing to participate due to interest in the topic, learning new things and social bonding. However, despite the conceptions within HCI that long-term engagement is crucial within participatory design, older people in the study preferred less commitment and more open formats.

Creating Accessibility 2.0 with Artificial Intelligence

Ann-Kathrin Kubullek, Aysegül Dogangün

Ruhr West University of Applied Science, Germany

Despite the fact that artificial intelligence (AI) has existed for many years, for the first time it managed to attract the attention of the mainstream media. Since the release of the chatbot system "ChatGPT" by OpenAI in November 2022 the hype and interest in AI has increased significantly, not only in research but also among the general public. As a result, the question arises which specific application areas and target groups can benefit from artificial intelligence in the future. This article provides an overview of the use of artificial intelligence in creating accessibility. For this purpose, various aspects are considered on how AI technologies can contribute to removing barriers for people with disabilities and enable them to participate equally in social life. The aim of this paper is to highlight the potentials and challenges of uniting AI and accessibility. It discusses the contribution that artificial intelligence can make to closing the gap between technology and accessibility. Finally, an approach for the creation of a new kind of accessibility, the so-called Accessibility 2.0, is proposed.

Emma stop that, it's my turn now - Comparing Peer Tutoring and Thinking-Aloud for Usability-Testing with Children in a school setting

Lea Wöbbekind, Kira Lorberg, Thomas Mandl

Universität Hildesheim, Deutschland

The subject of this study was to explore children’s ability to offer verbal feedback during usability evaluation studies. The aim is to find out whether the use of the method Peer Tutoring or Thinking Aloud can identify more usability findings in usability tests with second graders than observation. 13 Second graders tested an interactive game using two evaluation techniques. The findings indicate that the majority of verbal remarks were identified with the method of Thinking Aloud and that participants also provided more higher quality remarks. More usability findings could be identified than in a purely observational situation. Unexpectedly, the Peer Tutoring method was less beneficial for the identification of usability problems since the participants struggled to cooperate successfully.

"Virtual reality nature as our next retreat?" - User experience testing of a simulated natural environment in virtual reality

Borbála Tölgyesi1, Ágnes Karolina Bakk1, Máté Barkóczi1, Balázs Buri2, András Szabó2, Botond Tobai2, Bonita Sadie3, Renáta Cserjési3, Iva Georgieva4, Christian Roth5

1Moholy-Nagy University of Art and Design, Budapest, Hungary; 2Code and Soda Ltd, Budapest, Hungary; 3Eötvös Loránd University Faculty of Education and Psychology, Budapest, Hungary; 4Bulgarian Academy of Sciences 
 Sofia, Bulgaria; 5HKU University of Arts Utrecht 
 Utrecht, the Netherlands

In this article, we present the initial user experience test results of an experiment conducted in an interactive natural environment created in virtual reality (VR). The computer-generated (CG) VR application, entitled Zenctuary VR, was designed with the intention of giving the users a pleasant experience with the benefits of easing anxiety symptoms, boosting positive feelings and lowering negative ones, thus having a restorative effect. For this, we designed a graphically high-resolution, natural environment with playful interactions. The testing was conducted with adults diagnosed with attentional deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and with a neurotypical control group in order to investigate whether the ADHD group experiences the app differently from the latter group and to enhance its effectiveness specifically for individuals with ADHD. While the assessed scales for presence, immersion, feeling of flow, gained skills, usability, and judgment did not differ between the two groups, overall their evaluations of the experience and the software application were favorable. We also gathered insightful comments on the application's shortcomings, which will enable us to improve it and make it more enjoyable and ultimately more beneficial for the users.

Growing Green Habits: Unobtrusive Gamified Eco-Feedback to Motivate Sustainable Behavior

Fabian Plichta1, Annett Mitschick1, Konstantin Klamka1, Raimund Dachselt1,2

1Interactive Media Lab Dresden, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; 2Centre for Tactile Internet with Human-in-the-Loop (CeTI), Germany

Promoting environmental awareness and sustainable behavior is an important action for climate protection. In this paper, we introduce a gamified eco-feedback approach using an interactive plant-like physical interface to encourage lower heating energy consumption in households. The interface is designed to be a part of the user's environment and evoke a caretaker relationship. It measures indoor climate parameters via sensors, awards users with points for environmentally friendly and healthy heating and ventilation habits, and changes its shape to mimic growing and flourishing. Through their mobile device, the users can retrieve detailed information in a companion app. A prototype implementation demonstrates the feasibility of the concept and serves as a basis for further work in this emerging research area.

Building Bridges Through Design: Game Design Strategies to Empower Young Adults Taking Social Offers - Results From a Pilot Study

Leonie Lindemann, Torben Volkmann, Nicole Jochems

Universität zu Lübeck, Deutschland

In this work, we analyze whether the empowerment of young adults can be supported through gamified design approaches in a socio-spatial context. Based on a literature research, relevant empowerment factors were identified. Further, we give an overview of different gamified approaches to strengthen empowerment. We tested the results of our literature research within the implementation of a web-based application in the context of a project, which deals with digital participation processes for the youth. We suggest that gamified approaches within a web-app can be used to strengthen the empowerment of young adults in a socio-spatial context. In this paper, we focus on our process of gamifying the utilization of social offers (e.g., leisure activities, participation offers, youth welfare services) to strengthen the empowerment of young adults and thereby establish foundations for future studies examining the effect of game elements on the empowerment of young adults.

So sah ich vor 25 Jahren aus! Stereotypizität bei Avataren einer Weiterbildungsplattform

Monika Pröbster, Nicola Marsden

Hochschule Heilbronn, Deutschland

Weiterbildung findet zunehmend online und unter Verwendung immersiver 3D-Umgebungen statt. In diesen virtuellen Welten werden Avatare verwendet, um die Benutzer*innen zu repräsentieren. Frühere Forschungen, meist im Kontext von Online oder Video-Games, haben gezeigt, dass die Ähnlichkeit von Selbst und Avatar zu einer höheren Zufriedenheit mit dem eigenen Avatar führt. Eine Studie der Autor*innen, die Verwendung von Avataren in einem realen beruflichen Ausbildungsumfeld konnte diesen Zusammenhang ebenfalls bestätigen. Die vorliegende Studie ergänzt die bisherigen Ergebnisse durch die in einer qualitativen Befragung gewonnen Informationen zur Wahrnehmung der Avatare durch die Teilnehmenden. Dabei zeigten sich fünf relevante Themenfelder: (1) Die vergeschlechtlichten Auswahlmöglichkeiten, (2) intersektionale Aspekte, vor allem hinsichtlich der Intersektion von Geschlecht und Alter, sowie von Religionszugehörigkeit und ethnischer Herkunft, (3) der soziale Kontext der Avatarnutzung, (4) die generelle Problematik fehlender Modifikationsmöglichkeiten und (5) die geringe wahrgenommene Ähnlichkeit mit dem eigenen Avatar. Die Ergebnisse unterstützen die Befunde zur Bedeutung von Selbstähnlichkeit und Avatar-Identifikation und geben Aufschluss darauf, wie die Gestaltung verbessert werden kann, um eine höhere Identifikation zu ermöglichen.

Game Jamming als partizipativer Designansatz zur Förderung der digitalen Kompetenzen Adoleszenter

Annika Kreuder1,2, Veit Frick3, Sabine J. Schlittmeier1, Ulrich Frick2

1RWTH Aachen University; 2HSD Hochschule Döpfer; 3Alpen-Adria Universität, Klagenfurt

Jugendliche und junge Erwachsene stellen weltweit die größte und aktivste Altersgruppe von Internetnutzer*innen dar. Entgegen der Vorstellung natürlich erworbener digitaler Kompetenzen, fehlt es vielen jedoch an einem Verständnis für Technik und den damit verbundenen Risiken. Serious Games sind eine vielversprechende Möglichkeit selbstregulative digitale Kompetenzen zu fördern. Im Projekt A-DigiKomp wurde ein dreitätiger online Game Jam mit Adoleszenten veranstaltet, um die Zielgruppe in den user-zentrierten Entwicklungsprozess von Spielideen zur Förderung digitaler Handlungsfähigkeit einzubeziehen. Drei Prototypen zum Thema Datenschutz und Online-Sicherheit wurden im Rahmen des CGN Game Jams entwickelt. Persönliche Erfahrungen und zielgruppenspezifisches Wissen Adoleszenter wurden erfolgreich aufgegriffen. Das Potenzial von Game Jams als partizipative Forschungsmethode wird untersucht und Implikationen für zukünftige Veranstaltungen abgeleitet.

Movement in Virtual Time: How Virtual Reality Can Support Long-Term Thinking

Paula Bräuer1, Margarita Berg1, Athanasios Mazarakis2, Isabella Peters1,2

1Kiel University, Germany; 2ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics

The immersive nature of Virtual reality (VR) allows even complex information to be communicated in an engaging, interactive, and fast way. This is particularly useful in the case of long-term political processes, such as the siting, construction, and management of a repository for high-level radioactive waste (HLRW). In this paper, we present an approach to convey an understanding of such long-time horizons by converting the information into a motion-controlled VR application. To gain insight into how users experience a period of 500 years, a pilot study with 15 subjects was conducted. The first results were positive; the subjects were thrilled with the presentation format in VR and offered several recommendations for improvement of the time visualization. For inexperienced users, the interaction was possible without any assistance and has the potential to be adapted to other use cases.

Fake it and Let Them Make it: Combining Wizard-of-Oz and Rapid Prototyping Tools for a Holistic Co-Design of Conversational User Interfaces

Patrick Stadler, Vanshika Bawa

German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI)

Developing and evaluating chatbots can be a costly and resource-intensive endeavor, often only addressing the preferences of final stakeholders at the very late stage. This paper presents an innovative approach that leverages chatbot simulations within a co-design framework to involve users early on. The proposed methodology aims to enable comprehensive evaluation of chatbot aspects without the need for users to download an app. The integration of a Wizard-of-Oz (WoZ) tool with WidgetExplorer, our proposed chatbot prototyping and evaluation tool, is introduced as a platform for rapid prototyping and user-centered evaluation. This iterative process facilitates contextual conversations, reflection, and dynamic adjustments to the dialog flow and its appearance. Furthermore, the paper presents the incorporation of visual UI components using AdaptiveCards Designer. Using this approach could lead to improving efficiency, inclusivity, and transparency in chatbot design and evaluation.

Enhancing the Supervision of Out-of-View Robots: A Study on Multimodal Feedback and Monitoring Screens

Khaled Kassem, Ambika Shahu, Christina Tüchler, Philipp Wintersberger, Florian Michahelles

Technische Universität Wien, Österreich

Objective: investigating the effect of two support methods (multimodal feedback, monitoring screens, and a combination of both) on human dual-task performance, cognitive workload, and user experience when supervising an out-of-sight autonomous robot. Method: A 2x2 within-group user study was conducted in VR with 26 participants involving a cognitive-cognitive dual-task setting. Participants had to simultaneously solve math problems and supervise the robot. Different support methods were provided: multimodal feedback, a screen showing real-time robot activity, and a combination of both. Objective performance metrics and subjective feedback on cognitive load and user experience were collected using standard questionnaires. Data were statistically analyzed, and thematic analysis was performed on post-study debriefing interviews. Results: The support methods improved overall user experience and positively impacted robot collaboration performance while decreasing math task performance. Cognitive load was unaffected. Multimodal feedback with a monitoring screen was perceived as the most helpful. Conclusion: The results suggest that multimodal feedback can improve user experience and improve supervision, but may partially decrease primary task performance. The findings highlight the importance of examining the effect of support methods in specific situations, depending on task priority.

Identifying Explanation Needs of End-users: Applying and Extending the XAI Question Bank

Lars Sipos, Ulrike Schäfer, Katrin Glinka, Claudia Müller-Birn

Freie Universität Berlin, Deutschland

Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) is concerned with making the decisions of AI systems interpretable to humans. Explanations are typically developed by AI experts and focus on algorithmic transparency and the inner workings of AI systems. Research has shown that such explanations do not meet the needs of users who do not have AI expertise. As a result, explanations are often ineffective in making system decisions interpretable and understandable. We aim to strengthen a socio-technical view of AI by following a Human-Centered Explainable Artificial Intelligence (HC-XAI) approach, which investigates the explanation needs of end-users (i.e., subject matter experts and lay users) in specific usage contexts. One of the most influential works in this area is the XAI Question Bank (XAIQB) by Liao et al. The authors propose a set of questions that end-users might ask when using an AI system, which in turn is intended to help developers and designers identify and address explanation needs. Although the XAIQB is widely referenced, there are few reports of its use in practice. In particular, it is unclear to what extent the XAIQB sufficiently captures the explanation needs of end-users and what potential problems exist in the practical application of the XAIQB. To explore these open questions, we used the XAIQB as the basis for analyzing 12 think-aloud software explorations with subject matter experts, i.e., art historians. We investigated the suitability of the XAIQB as a tool for identifying explanation needs in a specific usage context. Our analysis revealed a number of explanation needs that were missing from the question bank, but that emerged repeatedly as our study participants interacted with an AI system. We also found that some of the XAIQB questions were difficult to distinguish and required interpretation during use. Our contribution is an extension of the XAIQB with 11 new questions. In addition, we have expanded the descriptions of all new and existing questions to facilitate their use. We hope that this extension will enable HCI researchers and practitioners to use the XAIQB in practice and may provide a basis for future studies on the identification of explanation needs in different contexts.

„Cookies? Ich weiß nicht mal, was das ist.“ – Online-Fokusgruppen zum Erleben und Verhalten von Adoleszenten im digitalen Raum

Annika Kreuder1,2, Luise Haehn1, Jennifer Klütsch1, Sabine J. Schlittmeier1, Ulrich Frick2

1RWTH Aachen University; 2HSD Hochschule Döpfer

Jugendliche und junge Erwachsene verbringen viel Zeit im Internet und sind sich ihrer damit verbundenen Rechte und Pflichten nicht immer bewusst. Sie vernachlässigen Themen wie Datensicherheit und machen sich damit anfällig für Datenmissbrauch. Daraus ergibt sich die Notwendigkeit, Einflussfaktoren digital kompetenten Verhaltens in dieser Altersgruppe zu untersuchen und Erkenntnisse für die Gestaltung zielgerichteter Maßnahmen abzuleiten. Basierend auf sechs Fokusgruppendiskussionen mit 43 Teilnehmenden im Alter von 17 bis 25 Jahren zeigte sich ein breites Spektrum an Bewusstsein, Verständnis und Bedenken bezüglich digitaler Medien und digitaler Innovationen. Trotz der täglichen Auseinandersetzung mit digitalen Tools kämpfen viele junge Erwachsene mit komplexen Konzepten wie Cookies und äußern vielfältige Ideen für mehr Transparenz und Aufklärung. Diese Erkenntnisse können zur bedarfsgerechten Förderung der digitalen Kompetenz der Zielgruppe beitragen.

HoloBoard: Visual Augmentation and Gamification of Balance Exercises

Frölke Robin1, Butz Benjamin1, Gregor Lux1, Jens Gerken2

1Westphalian University of Applied Sciences, Germany; 2TU Dortmund University, Germany

Ankle injuries are among the most common injuries in many ball sports. Balance training can help stabilize foot joints and prevent injuries. In particular, training programs that use a balance board have shown improved neuromuscular function and reduced susceptibility to injuries. Traditional balance training is often inadequate because there is no feedback, and the "monotonous" movements are perceived as "boring." This paper explores the effectiveness and suitability of an Augmented-Reality enhanced balance board, the HoloBoard. Our application integrates typical ball sports activities such as "catching," "heading," and "dodging," as well as various difficulty levels. We performed an exploratory field study with a semi-professional handball team, which showed that participants preferred the HoloBoard compared to traditional balance board training, enjoyed it, and judged the training as effective.

Overcoming technology and communication barriers in intergenerational communication with a tangible interface

Bernhard Wohlmacher, Holger Klapperich, Fabian Mertl, Alina Huldtgren

Hochschule Düsseldorf, Deutschland

Despite the higher uptake of digital media also in older age groups, there are still challenges for people of high ages and with cognitive or motoric problems, which prevent them from learning and using devices like smartphones or tablets. Tangible user interfaces provide an opportunity to connect these people to social media, thereby increasing their digital participation in society and reducing loneliness. In this paper we discuss the challenges of intergenerational communication and research the opportunities affiliated with tangible technologies to overcome technology barriers for ´adults of high ages. We present a hybrid system for social media interactions between young smartphone users and their old relatives, who do not use mobile technologies. The system connects TAMI, a tangible user interface designed specifically for old adults to a standard mobile messenger service. TAMI was designed in a user-centered process to fulfill the needs of older adults and tested in a longer-term field study with pairs of young and old relatives.

Mobile AR in the Wild: Exploring an Augmented Reality Concept for a Nature Discovery Path and evaluating its Serious Game Elements

Mathias Trefzger1, Thomas Schlegel2

1University of Applied Sciences Karlsruhe; 2Furtwangen University

This short paper presents the concept for an Augmented Reality (AR) nature trail application aimed at enhancing the user's experience and interaction with the natural environment. The app leverages the capabilities of modern smartphones and AR technology to overlay digital elements onto the real world, providing users with an immersive and educational experience. The research focuses on evaluating the concept and the app prototype itself with its different elements and games. The study serves as a first step to gather an overall idea about the perception of the app, to understand the young target group better and to extract hypotheses for following experiments. Initial findings indicate that different user groups have preferences relating the app elements and games. For example, the more tech-savvy participants rated the implemented quiz significantly better than the less tech-savvy group. The paper also presents the subjective assessment of the participants how much they learned with the app, if they thought the app to be distracting them from the surroundings and more. The paper also highlights some challenges encountered during the development process and outlines future directions for improvement and expansion. Overall, this study presents an encouraging glimpse into the potential of AR technology to enhance nature experiences and promote environmental education.

CareConnection – A Digital Caring Community Platform to Overcome Barriers of Asking for, Accepting and Giving Help

Tanja Aal1, Andrea Ruhl3, Erich Kohler3, Apurva Choudhary1, Pragya Bhandari1, Namrata Devbhankar1, Silvia Egli3, Gashi Shkumbin2, Heidi Kaspar2, Madlen Spittel1, Dennis Kirschsieper1, Claudia Müller1

1Universität Siegen, Siegen, Deutschland; 2University of Applied Sciences Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 3Co-Researcher

Many people would like to remain in their familiar surroundings in old age, even if they need certain forms of assistance. But what exactly does everyday life look like, where are there hurdles and where can community-based support options start? The results of a citizen-based participatory interview study of community members of a rural Living Lab near Zurich and full-time researchers from two universities in Switzerland and Germany answer these questions. Results of the study relate to physical limitations and potentials in old age, aspects of well-being and mental health, social engagement, relationships and networks, as well as the theme of 'asking for help, accepting help and giving help'. Against the background of a key category, the barriers of ‘asking for, accepting and giving help’, an overarching reflection by the co-researchers and full-time researchers took place. This focus provided the basis for the participatory development of CareConnection, a digital community platform to help overcome identified barriers, which can be physical, mental or social and within these categories temporal, spatial, structural and/or individual and thus enable or promote social encounters and interaction to establish a higher level of well-being and health.

Creating Routes for Landmark-Training with the CompanionApp: A Pilot User Study

Tom Lorenz, Linda Münch, Patrick Adair, Ina Schiering, Sandra Verena Müller

Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Deutschland

An important ability for participation in society is wayfinding. In this paper the findings of a pilot user study conducted to assess the usability of the CompanionApp, a mobile application aimed at providing landmark training and wayfinding assistance to individuals with cognitive impairments are presented. The study focuses on the role of caregivers in using the app and explores their level of comfort with technology. Participants engaged in a workshop where they created routes using the app, followed by a feedback session. The results indicate promising usability of the app's user interface and route creation process. However, certain aspects require clarification and a more comprehensive introduction. These findings highlight the potential of the CompanionApp in empowering individuals with cognitive impairments to navigate independently and foster inclusion.

Correct Foot Positioning in Virtual Reality through Visual Agility Ladder Training

Stefan Resch, Mustafa Rafati, Angela Altomare, Oumaima Raddi, Arso Tahmas, Valentin Schwind, Diana Völz

Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences, Deutschland

Incorrect gait patterns and foot positioning can lead to serious consequences for the entire musculoskeletal system of the human body. While previous work indicates that training with an agility ladder in immersive environments such as in virtual reality (VR) is helpful for training foot positioning using visual feedback, it remains unknown how the visual feedback affects the users' gait pattern. In an experimental user study (N=20) in VR, we compared the foot positioning success rate and the users' preferences using four different visualization techniques of an agility ladder (footsteps, arrows, numbers, empty fields). The quantitative results indicate that visualization of footsteps achieved the highest accuracy in correct foot positioning without increasing the workload in VR. This is in contrast to the qualitative feedback in which most of the participants were in favor of the empty field condition. We discuss the implications and limitations for future studies using agility ladder training in VR.

Enhancing Users' Attitudes towards WebIDs: Exploring the Effects of Persuasive Messaging on User Adoption.

Tim Theys1, Tom Haegemans2, Jelle Saldien1, Lieven De Marez1, Javad Kashefi1

1Ghent University, Belgium; 2Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium

As society and businesses increasingly rely on data, individuals are growing more uneasy about the protection and management of their personal information. Solid, a decentralized web standard, offers a promising solution by providing individuals with a personal online data store and a corresponding WebID for identification. However, the adoption of WebIDs is still in its early stages and many companies remain uncertain about how to position WebIDs in a way that ensures user acceptance. This study leverages the theory of planned behaviour to explore the effects of different types of persuasive reasoning, aimed at strengthening individuals' attitudes, on their intention to create a WebID. The study identified three persuasive messaging strategies from practice favouring the choice for WebIDs: enhanced control, enhanced personalization, and Single Sign-On (SSO). An online experiment presented participants with one of the persuasive messages and the choice of creating a WebID or using existing accounts (Google, Apple, Facebook) to register on a news website. The results indicate that highlighting enhanced personalization or positioning WebIDs as a Single Sign-On (SSO) solution significantly increased the adoption rate of WebIDs, in contrast to emphasizing enhanced control. This study lays the groundwork for future comprehensive research aimed at exploring the underlying reasons behind the positive influence of certain factors on the adoption of WebIDs.

Conceptualization of the Understanding of Participation and Co-Creation in Interdisciplinary Research Groups developing Digital Health Technology: An Exploratory Study

Angela Osterheider1, Holger Klapperich2, Elisabeth Stein3, Tim Weiler4, Cordula Endter1, Alina Huldtgren2, Claudia Müller4

1Katholische Hochschule Berlin; 2Hochschule Düsseldorf, Deutschland; 3Fraunhofer FIT; 4Universität Siegen

The healthcare sector's digital transformation necessitates the involvement of stakeholders through participation and co-creation processes. This study aims to investigate the understanding and implementation of participation and co-creation in the development of hybrid interaction technologies in healthcare. Eight interdisciplinary research projects were examined through semi-structured group interviews with 49 participants from academia, industry, and the application field. The interviews focused on participants' perspectives on project goals, user groups, access to the field, methods of participation and co-creation, and user motivation. The results highlight the diverse understandings of participation and co-creation, with some perceiving them as research-driven and others as already embedded in user-centered design. The projects emphasized user needs but often excluded stakeholders from collaborative decision-making. Challenges in achieving continuous involvement and co-decision were acknowledged. The findings underscore the need for reflexive practice and evaluation of participation and co-creation throughout the development process, as well as further research on participation across projects. By addressing these challenges and embracing participatory approaches, digital health applications can better address ethical concerns, build trust, and increase acceptance and adoption in the healthcare sector.